Friday, May 22, 2020

Definition of an Ideal Gas

An ideal gas is a gas whose pressure P, volume V, and temperature T are related by the ideal gas law: PV nRT where n is the number of moles of the gas and R is the ideal gas constant. Ideal gases are defined as having molecules of negligible size with an average molar kinetic energy dependent only on temperature. At a low temperature, most gases behave enough like ideal gases that the ideal gas law can be applied to them. An ideal gas is also known as a perfect gas.

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Freedom From Coercion And The Freedom Of Living A Thriving...

Based on two different definitions of liberty, the state and corporations each have different threats to individuals. There are two ways to define liberty, the freedom from coercion and the freedom to live a flourishing life. If solely based on the first definition, the state is more coercive than corporations and has more intrusion on individual liberty. It has rights to grant punishment of imprisonment while a corporation can hardly achieve that severity. For example, if a person is accused of committing a crime, he or she may be placed in jail and lose the basic liberty, for example, to see families whenever they want to. In comparison, the worst punishment by a corporation, being fired by the firm, cannot compare with that from the†¦show more content†¦These examples illustrate that corporations have the abilities to force individuals, especially those who live in poverty, to work in bad conditions or with below-average wages. In this way, corporations harm individual fr eedom to live flourishing lives because they could provide more just treatments to the employees. To summarize, the state takes away more individual freedom from coercion while corporations take away more freedom to live flourishing lives. While both harm individual liberty to a certain extent, the state has a stronger moral justification to intervene because it takes away liberty to increase individual well-being. According to Mill, individuals should have the ability to do what they freely want so long as they do not harm others (Mill, 945). Although Mill argues for less government intervention, he recognizes the role that the state plays to increase individual well-being in society (Mill, 970, 971). In other words, a state even though should not exercise its power over a society to govern, it is necessary and just to do so to prevent harm to others and to protect well-being. The government thus should step in sometimes to regulate and punish illegal behaviors in order to maintain the order of society. The state, according to Mill, can make decisions in some cases in order to best protect individuals while allowing informed people to make their own educated decisions with the exception

Wednesday, May 6, 2020


string(89) " can bring anything that you need to discuss with you during your training at your work\." Running head: WHAT ARE ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES? Title Principles about Adult Learning Author Michael McElrath Author Affiliation Liberty University Author Note This paper was prepared for INFT-101, B61, taught by professor K Abstract Adult learning theory became well known in the US during the 20th century. Industrialization resulted in substantial demands for training. Then, they continue education for adults for the one already completed their elementary and secondary education. We will write a custom essay sample on Running head: WHAT ARE ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES? or any similar topic only for you Order Now There is several numbers of dimensions of learning. There are also several kinds of memory. The training performance should remember and exercise the independence of the trainee as a self-directed person. The training materials should guarantee the trainee as a self-directed person, as well as exercise the experiential base that the trainee brings to the training position. Adult learning theory can certain improve and format training activities. They should be carefully by being reviewed by both the training staff and line manager. What Are Adult Learning Principle? A previous issue of â€Å"Effective GMP† (Journal of GXP Compliance, Summer 2009, Volume 13, Number 3) identifies and briefly discusses the following key points that should be considered in management of GXP training program: 1. Training policy, standards, and procedures documented. 2. Training process strategy and approach defined. 3. Principles of adult learning theory considered. 4. Training needs analyzed and prioritized by risk analysis. 5. Collaboration of affected groups with defined responsibilities and requirements for each group. 6. Trainees and their organizations are â€Å"customers† of training. . Training appropriate for task. 8. Training materials and materials and methods appropriate and effective. 9. Qualified training personal. 10. Training performance. 11. Training effective monitoring and maintenance. 12. Change training if needed. 13. Training documentation. 14. Efficient and cost-effective training. 15. Senior management support training. Also, the authors of the Journal of GXP Compliance have received several questions about the principles of adult learning. The questions were combined into seven and they have important material for learning in them. Principles about Adult Learning Learning Theory Adult learning practice and theory became well known in the history and education in the new life age. There were so many reasons for this. Industrialization results in many requests for whose training and continuing education for their self as an adult. The requests were on the rise by the development of the science-based companies. Adult education became organize in the system and then they learned professional. †During the 1920s, Lindeman, proposed a set of adult learning principles† (see in Table 1) (Eduard C. Lindeman, 1926, p. 39-40). Implications For Training Persons are responsible for organizing the training programs to classify to the groups about the differences in conduct training. The questions that are considered: 1. Is this training for new hires or repeat training for people who have been doing the job for 20 years? 2. Will the trainees be doing this work for one week and then be released, or will they be doing this work for an extended period-like one year? 3. What are the perspectives of the individuals to be trained? 4. Are they highly educated and experienced pharmaceutical scientists or newly hired workers without any background in the industry? Each of these questions can highly affect the performance of your training or your work. Table 1: Lindeman’s principles of adult learning| MotivationOrientation to learn| As adults experience needs and interests that can besatisfied through learning, they are motivated to learn. Adults have a life-centric orientation to learning. | Experiential base| The richest source for adult learning is experience. | Self-direction| Adults need to be self-directed. | Individual differences| Individual differences increase with age. | Adults Learn Differently Than Children This is a principle of adult learning theory that discuss that adult learns differently than children do. Pedagogy comes from a Greek name. 1Pedagogy means the teaching of children. The spokesman during the adult training was Malcolm Knowles. â€Å"Influenced by a Yugoslavian adult educator Dusan Svicevic, Knowles began to use the term â€Å"andragogy† (Malcolm S. Knowles, 1989, p. 8). 2Andragogy is the meaning of teaching of adults. â€Å"Knowles stressed the difference between the education and training of children (pedagogy) and the education and training of adults (andragogy)† (Malcolm S. Knowles, 1989, p. 79). He argued that there are a number of dimensions along which adult learning differs from that of children† (Malcolm S. Knowles, 1984, p. 12). †These include self-concept, experience, readiness to learn, orientation to learning, and motivation to learn† (see Table2). (Malcolm S. Knowles, 1970). Table 2: Dimensions of Andragogy vs. Pedagogy. | Self-concept| The maturing person’s self -concept moves from one of being a dependent personality toward one of being a self-directed human being. | Experience| | Readiness to learn| The maturing person’s readiness to learn becomes oriented increasingly to the developmental tasks of his social roles. Orientation to learning| The maturing person’s time perspective changes from one orknowledge to immediacy of application, and accordingly the orientation toward learning shifts from one of subject-centeredness to one of problem centeredness. | Motivation to learn| As a person matures, the motivation to learn is internal. | There are some many that are alike and different in Lindeman’s principles. The principles of Knowles are clear. There is a major difference in one of Knowles principle that he stresses it is called vocational learning. Implications for Training The implications of Knowles’ principles for training are also clear† (James C. Fish er and Ronald L. Podeschi, Oct-Dec. 1989, p. 345-353). †There are two implications that should especially be stressed† (Malcolm S. Knowles, Dec. 1979, p40-42). The trainee’s should understand remember the process of the training as a self-directed person. †The trainee’s experiential base† (D. Randy Garrison, Fall 1997, p. 18-33). The manager of the training materials should advance the material to involve the trainee as a self-directed person. They also applied the experience to the training program. An example to this is that when someone reads you something out loud that is poor approach to training -it means that the trainee can’t read for themselves. The program gives you least one or two days to read over the procedure. Then you can bring anything that you need to discuss with you during your training at your work. You read "Running head: WHAT ARE ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES?" in category "Learning" †Technical training is a response to some performance gap on the part of employees† (p. 18-33). 3No gap means no training is needed. When work places require unneeded training it has a negative effect on it that’s the bottom line. During, a training session let the employee test out in a training session. This way it will be cheaper, faster, and better for the employee’s to meet the training requirements. How Can We Tell If Employees Have Really Learned? The best way to discuss this question is to recognize the complex of the problem. † There are a number dimensions of dimensions of learning; there are several kinds of memory; there are multiple environmental and cultural factors; and there are methodological differences between various studies of learning across the lifecycle (Christopher Hertzog and John R. Nesselroade, 2003, p. 639-657). All of these factors are the answer to the question. †In 1950s,in a series of publications called the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Benjamin Bloom (1913-1999) and his colleagues distinguished three domains of learning: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor â€Å"(David R. Krathwohl and Lorin W. Anderson,2009,p. 107-110). † For instance, within the cognitive domain are the categories of knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation† (Benjamin S. Bloom, 1956, p. 62-200). These groups are ordered: to understand a fact. The affective departments are the groups of receiving, and responding are the inputs. The other groups are organizing, valuing, and internalizing values. The groups are also ordered to receive an input. † The knowledge dimension has four categories: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and meta-cognitive knowledge† (Hugh Munby, Nancy L. Hutcchinson, and Peter Chin, 2009, p. 1765). All of them are nouns. †The process dimension has six categories: remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating. These are all verbs. Like Bloom’s earlier categories, these categories are ordered†(Lorin W. Anderson and David R. Krathwohl,2001). This allows the development of a taxonomy table that handles the behavioral objectives. (see Table 3) Table 3: Taxonomy table for cognitive domain (2001). Categories of knowledge Categories of Categories of Categories of process Remembering process Understanding process Applying Factual Conceptual Procedural Meta-cognitive Categories of knowledge Categories of Categories of Categories of process Analyzing process Evaluating process Creating The proper cell is identified in each of the training objectives. For example, the manger comes up to you at end of your shift to ask you to clean the machine. This way you can â€Å"identify† any visible residue on it. 4Identify refers to process category remembering, specifically to this particular behavioral objective. Visible residue refers to the knowledge category factual, specifically to the sub-category specific detail. To make sure as a trainer your train your trainee right way through the objectives and adult learning theory. How Can We Tell If Employees Will Remember The Training? You know you do a good job at training other people, but how do we know they are going remember and use the training that you taught them? This leads a long talk about the measurement of memory. Dimensions of Memory Turning from all the involvement of the l earning domains and it is measurement. Turning all the groups into a learning department is a process of memory is just as difficult. † The supposition that exists a unitary memory has been abandoned decades ago in favor of the concept of the fractionation of memory (Alan D. Baddeley, 2007, p. 151-154). †Different kinds of memory involve different systems within the brain (Neuroscientists Ranganath and Robert S. Blumenfeld, August 2007, p. 208-291). Three of the systems are short term, long term, and working memory. We as an adult going have them sometime in our lifecycle. Conclusions In conclusion, the points have been discussed. There is a person responsible for all organizational training programs. They must make sure the groups they are training become most successfully in conduct training. There are so many differences among employees that can impact the effectiveness’ of training, and plus they should be taken into account to make training be as effective as possible. Reflection We are fixing to get into my point of view in adult learning theory. First I want to tell you what I have learned during while I am an adult. M y kids come in from school asking me questions that I didn’t even get to learn while I was in school. I think that’s why we as adult go back to school to get updated on the new things in education. Another thing I have learned when I got married to my wife now is I didn’t know how big of a challenge it is having an autistic child . I got on the computer research something’s on it. Then, my wife sat me down to explain how to do everything with him. The 2nd point of view I want to tell you about from my point of view is collaboration of affected group request responsibilities and requirements for each of their groups. You learn as an adult to make sure you clean and keep things clean where you won’t spread any germs. Kids don’t understand what germs are because they spread them easier than adults. That’s why you want to teach them to clean everything where they won’t spread germs to one thing to another. For example, you want teach your child to do good hand washing. That will reduce the spread of germs. You may get request to go do some type of cleaning while you are at work. This request helps us not to spread germs to everyone. For example, if you are working in a fast food place and you go to use the bathroom you have to wash your hands. This helps use not spreading germs to everyone even to the customers. While you are at home you always make sure things stays clean where you won’t spread or have germs. This helps with your kids not getting sick so much. The 3rd point of view I want to tell you about from my point of view is training needs analyzed and prioritized by risk analysis. By being in school, we all will have to have short term and long term memory. We have to use this to learn different things in life. You will use short term memory for a short period of time it can be for rest of your life. Sometimes, I go back ask myself if I really did do something I post to do for that day. What is that called? That means you has a short term memory lost for a short period of time during the day that you didn’t remember if you did it or not. When you get older you can have long term memory lost or even if you had head trauma you can also have it. The working memory has control over your behaviors that you do on a daily day. How do you control that? Nobody can control it but you. You have to control your own behaviors because nobody else can control them for you. There are some many principles in adult learning theory that you need to know. Adults have their ways learning differently and children have their ways of learning. We all have to learn the principles in life to be able to learn throughout life as we go. We as adults have our own ways of learning things. You have to find the way you like to learn. You have to ask yourself if you like learning by pictures, diagrams, voices, or even sound References (1. ) Eduard C. Lindeman, The Meaning of Adult Education, NY: New Republic, 1976, p. 39-40. (2. ) Malcolm S. Knowles, The Making of an Adult Educator, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1989, p. 8. (3. ) Malcolm S. Knowles, The Making of an Adult Educator, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1989, p. 79. (4. ) Malcolm S. Knowles, The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1970. (5. ) Malcolm S. Knowles et al. , Andragogy in action. Applying Modern Principles of Adult Education, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1984, P. 12. (6. ) James C. Fisher and Ronald L. Podeschi,†From Lindeman to Knowles: A Change in Vision, â€Å"International Journal of Lifelong Education, Vol. 8, No. 4, Oct-Dec. 1989, p. 345-353. (7. ) Malcolm Knowles, Training and Development Journal, Vol. 33, No. 12, Dec. 1979, p. 40-42. (8. ) D. Randy Garrison,†Self-Directed Learning: Toward a Comprehensive Model,† Adult Education Quartly, Vol. 48, No. 1, Fall 1997, p. 18-33. (9. ) Christopher Hertzog and John R. Nesselroade,†Assessing Psychological Change in Adulthood: An Overview of Methodological Issues, â€Å"Psychology and Aging, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2003, p. 639-657. (10. ) David R. Krathwohl and Lorin W. Anderson, â€Å"Bloom’s Taxonomy, â€Å"Psychology of Classroom Learning, Eric Anderman (ed. ), NY: Macmillian, 2009, Vol. 1, p107-110. (11. ) Benjamin S. Bloom (ed), Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain, NY: David McKay, 1956, p. 62-200. (12. ) Hugh Munby, Nancy L. Hutchinson, and Peter C hin,† Workplace Learning: Metacognitive strategies for Learning in the Knowledge Economy, â€Å"International Handbook of Education for the Changing World of Work, 2009, p. 1765. (13. Lorin W. Anderson and David R. Krathwohl (eds), A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing, NY: Longman, 2001. (14. ) Neuroscientist Ranganath and Robert S. Blumenfeld,†Prefrontal Cortex and Long-Term Memory Encoding; An Integrative Review of Findings from Neuropsychology and Neuroimaging,† Neuroscientist,Vol. 13 ,No. 3, 2007, p. 280-291 (15. ) Alan D. Baddeley,†Working Memory: Multiple Models, Multiple Mechanisms, â€Å"Science of Memory, Henry L . Roediger III, Yadin Dudai, and Susan M. Fitzpatrick (eds. ), NY: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 151-154. | | How to cite Running head: WHAT ARE ADULT LEARNING PRINCIPLES?, Essays

Monday, April 27, 2020

The technology impacts on music industry Essay Example Essay Example

The technology impacts on music industry Essay Example Paper The technology impacts on music industry Essay Introduction Introduction The music Industry Is the business of producing, recording and selling music through a number of different methods. These methods typical refer to recording and selling music through physical or digital means, Including live performance. The product offered by the music Industry are varied over years, from the very first beginning of tape cassettes, and then to CDC, till now, digital music records have become more popular comparing to others. Although the mainstream of production in music industry changes a lot, live performance of music is still an important part of industry s it allows performers to establish new fans and give old fans a chance to hear the music in a live venue. Beside this, music radio still typically plays a major part because they have traditionally been as a platform for new songs and performer showing and promoting. However, the influence of digital contribution in the music radio industry is also obviously. In this article, I will analysis the im pact of digital evolution on music recording and selling industry, and music artists’ career. The technology impacts on music industry Essay Body Paragraphs I will focus more on the Influence of digital towards the record labels. In the end, I will give mom recommendations on how the future of music Industry should be Like to be better off. Digital convergence and record labels â€Å"The traditional business model in the music industry includes the mass production and distribution of physical goods† (Hughes Lang, 2003). In this model, for the better part of a hundred years the recorded music business had an impressive track record of staying on top of the freshest technology, â€Å"up until 1 980, recorded music was an ecosystem totally run by the major record labels† (Bobby, 2014). Record labels are selecting artists and signing with them, manufacturing the products, such as CDC, ND distribute through music stores and artist will sell It at concerts as well (Valerie Deborah, 2004). The mall revenue comes from the sales of the products, Including CDC, cassettes and concert tickets and so on. They are promoting the product Oval print media and radio mostly. The music Industry was enjoying low manufacturing and high price of products. The high cost in music made music such luxurious and the spread of music is not very wide compare to nowadays. The record label was in the centre of the industry and each activity in this industry must get its approval before progressing. The money in the music industry flowed mainly to the record labels. They are the master of their own domain. However in the last few years, the recording industry has gone through great changes because of the Introduction of digital technology. â€Å"In 1 999, Anapest, a piece of software created by Shawn Fanning, brought about a major change in the industry’ (Pablo, 2013). Anapest as the pioneer of semi-centralized services, operated In a client server peer-to-peer model, where a central server system facilitates communication among peer clients† (Kate, 2005). The appearance of Anapest revised a tool to share the music fi les through the internet directly among fans and enthusiasts find and discuss music on the internet (David Starling, 2005). It can be say that Anapest was changing the music industry by permitting almost anyone to reproduce and distribute digital content at close to zero marginal cost over highly decentralized peer-to-peer computing architectures (David Starling, 2005). This, in my own opinion, is because of the demand for the cheap or free music by the consumers. Anapest had more than 60 million users worldwide before it was shut down by the U. S. Court system (Valerie Deborah, 2004). The market research submitted by the Aria’s expert showed that 41% of the people said that Anapest decrease or displaced music purchase (David Starling, 2005). Anapest was sued by ARIA for illegal, unauthorized peer-to-peer music file trading via the internet. However, the law of copyright was only effectively regulating the publishers at that time (Lawrence, 2001). In the situation that th e law of copyright was not consummate, the court could not accuse Anapest for infringing copyright at first because Anapest argued that â€Å"its users’ practice of ‘sampling music as a way to inform purchasing sections was a legitimate fair use† (David Starling, 2005). At that time, the music industry had no guidelines for how to charge licensing fees for sample music, so that it made challenges for court to charge Anapest. However, the win of the ARIA did not stop the free music sharing in the internet and the law of copyright still has vulnerabilities exist. Part of the reason Anapest was vulnerable to legal action was that is represented a centralized target, and its status as a company meant that ultimately it had to take responsibility for activities taking place via central river( Kate, 2005). Because of the pressure from external, the internet is forced to general changes and makes innovations, both legal and illegal. After Anapest, the decentralized pee r-to-peer networks appeared. This model has no central server, communication on the network traverses the peers themselves, and these individual computers are then linked together to form an advertisement hoc ratable network† (Kate, 2005). For illegal network for example, Neutral is Just a program but the company to offering particular service through system, and they avoiding sues by attempting sue individuals using network to download unauthorized content, which makes it hard for ARIA to protect its rights and revenues. And later on, networks seeks to safeguard their users by hiding its users’ details using techniques such as encryption. For legal network it includes legitimate online digital music services through POP services. For example tunes, it pays to the record labels to get licenses and sold the digital music file on their web. It priced $0. 99 per song, $0. 75 goes to the record label, and $0. 05 goes to the credit card companies and left only $0. 20 for com pany to cover all of its cost (Kate, 2005). Initially, â€Å"Apply tunes does not expect to raise its revenue by selling music files but to stimulate the purchase of pod† (Kate, 2005). Revenue model Both legal and illegal networks can raise their capital by 3 ways. The first source is from advertising of course (Kate, 2005). The second one is that music sharing networks can collect download rating data and sell it towards record labels as big which is more preferred by the customers. Additions to this some illegal networks will track the consumers’ Web browsing history and send promotional messages (Kate, 2005). And the last source is that collecting capital by selling licenses to independent artists who wants to post their content online (Kate, 2005). The annual global music sales declined by more than $2 million from 1999 to 2002 attribute to unauthorized online POP file trading, and offline piracy (Valerie Deborah, 2004). And the revenue and sales of record labels fell more than 40% since online music sharing was introduced. But the POP music file trading not Just change the situation of record labels, ultimately, it also changes the career of music artists. Digital convergence and independent artists In the past, the artists were controlled over by the record labels. They don’t have many options to fund their recordings, tours or projects in general without signing up with record labels (Pablo, 2013). The most important reason is that the artists do not have the equipment to record high quality music and distribute them without the supply of record labels. â€Å"However, in nowadays, the innovation of digital tools dramatically changes the horizon of access for those who would like to create new music† (Lawrence, 2001). For example, Apple technology can create music by the computer instead of instruments. Its advertisement said: â€Å"rip, mix, burn, after all, it’s your music. † And again, the copyright law has t o be mentioned. Just because you recreated the song doesn’t mean that is your music! For distribution, by paying low membership fees to the music distributing website such as MPH. Com. AU, these independent artists can upload their music file to public. Within the easy way to compose and distribute music, independent musicians have their own way to make a living and many of the people following them because they are more â€Å"free† to create the music they like. The future music industry To respond the decrease of sales, record labels should shift their attention from suing the piracy to promotion and marketing (Freedman, 2003). The record labels had more than one crisis because they have difficulties to accepting new technologies and styles of sale. In my view of point, maybe they should totally change their revenue structure. Till now, the main income of record labels is the sales of music in form of both physical and digital. They ignore the income from derivative industry of music, for example the photo albums of their artists, the tickets of the concerts, the reduce that contain the element of artists. Animation industry can collect money by selling their cartoon toys and cups printed with cartoon characters. How about music industry? Record labels can freely supply the music to the popular music website and share the advertisement revenue with these websites. By promoting the song in the internet, the influence of the song will increase and then the artist will get more famous, and ultimately, the sales in derivative industry will increase too. Additional to this, if the popularity of the artist improves, companies can seek higher influence of artist, record label can raise more capital. Conclusion â€Å"The introduction of new technology is always disruptive to old markets and particular to those copyright holders whose works are sold through will-established distribution mechanism† (Kate, 2005). Yet, all the activities are driving by the demand of the market. The record labels will end if they do not seek new ways to make an opportunity. According to most of the experts, the music industry created it own nightmares because it refuse to adopt and adapt the new digital innovation until it was too late. We will write a custom essay sample on The technology impacts on music industry Essay Example specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The technology impacts on music industry Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The technology impacts on music industry Essay Example specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Vietnamization And Its Effects Essays - Vietnam War, Free Essays

Vietnamization And Its Effects Essays - Vietnam War, Free Essays Vietnamization and its Effects Vietnamization and it's Lasting Effects on South Vietnam and it's Fall Outline I. Background A. Introduction B. Vietnam two separate countries 1. French Control 2. Viet Minh Revolt 3. Creation of North and South Vietnam C. America's objectives in South Vietnam D. Vietnam's armies II. Vietnamization A. Beginnings of Vietnamization B. Research of possible withdrawal C. Decision to withdraw 1. began in early 1969 III. American Withdrawal and South Vietnamese Buildup A. Short history B. Advisor and troop reductions C. Combat assiezce team reductions D. South Vietnamese buildup E. South Vietnamese military additions in 1972 IV. The Fall of Vietnam A. Easter Offensive B. Ceasefire 1. Goes in to effect on January 28, 1973 C. Break of the cease fire and North Vietnamese offensive of December, 1973 D. Final offensive in 1975 E. Resignation of President Thieu F. General Minh assumes the Presidency G. Minh fails in negotiations H. Minh gives in to all North Vietnamese demands V. Conclusions Background Vietnam was a country that was far removed from the American people until their history and ours became forever interlinked in what has come to be known as the Vietnam conflict. It is a classic story of good guys versus bad, communism versus freedom, and a conezt struggle for stability. Americas attempt to aid the cause of freedom was a valid one, but one that ended up with South Vietnam being dependent upon us for its very life as a nation. "Vietnamization" was the name for the plan to allow South Vietnam to ezd on its own, and ended in leaving a country totally on its own, unable to ezd and fight. Vietnam was a French territory until the Viet Minh insurgency of the late 1940's and through 1954. Although regarding this uprising as part of a larger Communist conspiracy, Americans were not unsympathetic to Vietnamese aspirations for national independence. The ensueing defeat of the French brought an end to the first stage of what was to be a thirty year struggle. The Indochina ceasefire agreement (Geneva Accords) of July 21, 1954 led to the creation of seperate states in Laos and Cambodia, and the artificial division of Vietnam into two republics. In the North the Communist Viet Minh established the democratic of Vietnam, and in the south a random collection of non - Communist factions, led by Ngo Dinh Diem, formed the Republic of Vietnam. The general elections provided for by the agreement never took place, and the two states quickly drew apart. The United States immediatly threw its support behind the southern regime and extended military aid through a Military Assiezce Advisory Group (MAAG) under the command of Lt. General John W. O'Daniel. American objectives in South Vietnam were reletively simple and remained so the establishment and preservation of a non - Communist government in South Vietnam. Initally, the most pressing problem was the weakness of the Saigon government and the danger of cival war between South Vietnam's armed religious and political factions. Diem, however, acting as a kind of benevolent dictator, managed to put a working government together, and O'Daniel's advisory group, about three or four hundred people, went to work creating a national army. Slowly, under the direction of O'Daniel and his successor in October 1955, Lt. General Samuel T. Williams, the new army took shape. The primary mission of this 150,000 man force was to repel a North Vietnamese invasion across the Demilitarised zone that seperated North and South Vietnam. Diem and his American advisors thus organised and trained the new army for a Korean - style conflict, rather than for the unconventional guerrilla warfare that had characterised the earlier French - Viet Minh struggle. President Minh also maintained a subeztial paramilitary force almost as large as the regular army. This force's primary task was to maintain internal security, but also acted as a counter weight to the army, whose officers often had political ambitions that were sometimes incompatible with those of Diem. From the beginning, such tensions weakened the Saigon government and severly hampered its ability to deal with South Vietnam's social and ecenomic problems. At the beginning of 1968 the military strength of the Saigon government was, on paper, impressive. The regular armed forces consisted of about

Monday, March 2, 2020

The Best Way to Study for the SAT 4 Ultimate Tips

The Best Way to Study for the SAT 4 Ultimate Tips SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you hope to get an amazing SAT score and improve your chances of getting into the college of your dreams, you'll need to know the best way to study for the SAT.But without a definitive study plan and the tools needed to study effectively, you won't be able to maximize your score, even if you put in tons of prep time. In this article, I'll explain all of your SAT study options to help you figure out which ones are right for you, and also give you essential study tips for your SAT prep. What's the Best Way to Study for the SAT? The truth is, there’s no single best way to study for the SAT. Rather, there are multiple ways you can prep: Self-study Tutors Classes Online programs A combination of these options The option you should choose will depend on your resources and what you need help with the most in your SAT prep. Regardless of what you decide to do, your SAT studying should always involve several strategies that are essential for quality test prep. I’ll explain the various strategies you can use, and then go over how to decide which one is the right one for you. 4Key SAT Study Strategies No matter what SAT score you're shooting for or how you plan to get there, here are the strategies you absolutely must employ to raise your score. #1: Determine Your Target Score Before you begin your SAT studying, you'll need tofigure out what score you’re trying to get on the SAT.Having a target score will motivate you and inform your studying. To findyour target score, look up the 75th percentile SAT scores for the schools you’re planning to apply to. Don’t include your safety schools- instead,only look up the scores for the schools you’re most interested in attending. The easiest way to find SAT score info is to Google â€Å"[School Name] PrepScholar SAT† and look for your school's "Admission Requirements" page in our database. This page will tell you that school's average, 25th percentile, and 75th percentile SAT scores. Here is an example of the our PrepScholar page for the University of Wisconsin: Your target score will be the highest 75th percentile scoreout of all the schools you're applying to (again, excluding safety schools). If you achieve a score equal to or above the 75th percentile score for a given college, you'll give yourself a great chance of getting into that school. For more tips on how to make an SAT goal score chart and find your target score, check out our article on good and bad SAT scores. Goals are good. #2: Figure Out How Long You'll Need to Study You can get a rough idea of how long you’ll need to study for the SAT by calculating the difference between your target score and your current score. Your current score will be the score from your last SAT, or, if you haven’t taken the SAT yet, your score from anofficial SAT practice test. (If you take a practice test, be sure to simulate real testing conditions as closely as possible!) Here’s an estimated breakdown of the point improvements you can expect for various numbers of study hours: 0-30 point improvement: 10 hours 30-70 point improvement: 20 hours 70-130 point improvement: 40 hours 130-200 point improvement: 80 hours 200-330 point improvement: 150 hours+ Once you know how long you'll need to study, you can make a plan that'll let you put in enough study hours and ultimately hit your goal score on test day. For example, if you need to study about 40 hours to reach your goal and you're planning on taking the SAT in five weeks, you'll need to schedule at least eight hours of study time per week. #3: Analyze Your Mistakes and Focus On Your Weaknesses It’s not enough to just put in study time; you need to study effectively. You’ll make the best use of your study time by figuring out why you’re missing questions and by focusing on improving your weaknesses. There are three major areas you might need to improve before you take the SAT: Content The SAT tests you on a number of skills related to reading, writing, and math. By determining the specific question types you’re getting wrong, you can identify the topics you need to study more. For example, maybe you’re struggling with punctuation questions on Writing. Or perhaps you’ve been missing the small number oftrigonometry questions on Math because you never learned SOHCAHTOA. As soon as you know the topics that are most challenging for you, you can use your study time to understand them better and do a ton of related practice questions in order to improve your weaknesses. Time The SAT is a strictly timed test, and even if you’re comfortable with the content, you might struggle finishing each section in time. If you’re somebody who either rushes (you finish a section more than five minutes early and make careless mistakes) or struggles to complete a section within the allotted time, you’ll need to work on your time management. If you're running out of time, pay more attention to the time you spend per question on SAT practice tests.Here's an overview of the estimated time you should spend on each question on different sections of the SAT: SAT Section Total Time # of Questions Time per Question Reading 65 minutes 52 75 seconds Writing and Language 35 minutes 44 48 seconds Math No Calculator 25 minutes 20 75 seconds Math Calculator 55 minutes 38 87 seconds Essay (Optional) 50 minutes 1 50 minutes You might also need to improve your content knowledge or develop better test-taking strategies depending on why you're having trouble finishing in time. Strategy The SAT is known for having questions that can be confusing or misleading. If you struggle with understanding what a question is asking or often fall prey to common SAT tricks, you’ll benefit from improving your knowledge of SAT strategy. For example, if you understand how to do all the math on the Math section but have difficulty interpreting the wording in certain questions, you should spend more time learning how to figure out what the questions are really asking. If you're missing Writing questions because you're not sure how to read the passages, that's another sign you need to change and improve your strategy. More generally, you're having problems with strategy if you can grasp the content being tested but struggle to understand and approach SAT questions. #4: Use Realistic Practice Questions and Tests Undoubtedly, the best questions to use are those that most closely resemble the questions on the SAT. A huge flaw of many SAT prep books is that their practice questions aren’t exactly like those on the test. They’re either too difficult, too simple, or presented in a way that differs from the usual SAT question format. It won't help your SAT score much to focus on questions not like those you’ll encounter on the SAT. Therefore,you should use the eight official practice tests provided by the College Board. Khan Academy, a free website that haspartnered with the College Board, is also a good source of official SAT practice questions. Other options for realistic questions areofficial PSAT practice tests(though these will likely be slightly easier than actual SAT questions). Finally, because ACT Reading and ACT English are now so similar to SAT Reading and SAT Writing, you can use official ACT practice tests to supplement your Reading and Writing practice. How Should You Study for the SAT? 4 Methods Now that you know the strategies you must employ to study for the SAT, I’ll go through the various options for SAT studying to help you determine the best method for you. Method 1: Self-Study It’s possible to reach your target score by studying entirely on your own. Whether you've chosen to study independently or simply don’t have the resources to pursue other options,effective self-studying will require you to be extremely disciplined, organized, and motivated. You should set a definitive study plan and stick to it as closely as possible. Other than real practice tests and SAT prep books,I highly recommend reading our SAT blog to further guide your studying. We've written tons of content and strategy guides for the Reading, Writing, Math, and Essay sections. A major drawback of just relying on real practice questions or Khan Academy to study is that you won’t learn test strategies. These strategies, which are explained in our articles, will simplify the test and can help you improve your score. Method 2: Private Tutor A private tutor might be a good option for you if you’re looking for customized instruction or need more help learning the material that’s tested on the SAT. Also, meeting with a tutor can help you stay on track if you need a little push. Keep in mind that tutors can be expensive and oftenvary greatly in terms of their knowledge and effectiveness. Before hiring a tutor, learn what SAT tutors do and how much they cost. Equip yourself with the knowledge to decide whether you should work with a tutor or on your own. Method 3: In-Person SAT Prep Class In-person prep classes have a set curriculum, and, like tutoring, they’re a good option if you need help sticking to a study plan. A prep class can be a good fit for you if you want to learn test strategies and increase your familiarity with the SAT. The best SAT classes willgive you a solid foundation in SAT material and help you study more effectively on your own.Additionally, if you feel that you learn better in a traditional classroom setting, you might enjoy being able to socially interact with your peers. Prep classes do have some significant drawbacks, though. In my opinion, the biggest drawback of a class is that it's not customized to your individual needs.Classes often have students of varying skill levels, and much of its content might feel like review or, on the contrary, might be too challenging if you've never been exposed to the material before. I've taught a number of SAT prep classes, and, as a teacher, my biggest challenge was always trying to make my classes helpful for each student. In the same class, I had students who had just learned English and students who were excelling in their AP English classes. While students at every level did see improvement in their SAT scores after taking my class, admittedlyit was impossible for me to perfectly address the needs of every student. Depending on the length of the course, you might not have enough time to thoroughly cover all of the material on the SAT. Furthermore, SAT classes can get expensive, with many costing more than $1,000. Method 4: Online SAT Prep Course Online prep courses can be a great option for students who want some structure but also the freedom to work independently.The biggest advantages of a good online prep course are that you’ll get an effective study plan and thorough content instruction. What's more, the course will be customized to your particular skill level. I may be biased, but our PrepScholar program is an exceptional online SAT prep course. Itfocuses on improving your weaknesses, and all practice test questions are written by SAT experts who scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT. Furthermore, as an experienced SAT teacher, I know that PrepScholar teaches effective test strategies that aren’t taught in many other in-person or online prep courses. Like all other options, however, online SAT prep courses do have disadvantages. For one, you need to have self-motivation to push yourself to put in enough study hours. In other words, youwon’t have the encouragement of a teacher or tutor to help you focus and stay on track. Secondly, some students just learn better with an instructor in front of them who can immediately answer their questions and provide them with further explanation. While a quality teacher or tutor can keep you engaged with material you might not find too exciting, an online course can feel a bit distant and boring. CollegeDegrees360/Flickr How to Decide the Best SAT Study Method for You Here are four key questions to ask yourself to help you determine yourbest way to study for the SAT: #1: How Much Money Can You Spend on SAT Prep? Although I think spending money on SAT prep is a worthy investment, some students simply can’t afford a tutor or prep course. If you want to take a prep course but don't have enough money, talk toyour school counselor or look online to see whether there are any free SAT prep courses available in your area. In my own experience,I’ve taught several free SAT classes through organizations that specifically cater to low-income students. #2: How Do You Learn Best? Personally, I’ve always preferred studying independently. In school, I learned better reading alone from a textbook than I did in class listening to my teacher lecture. So ask yourself:which of the SAT study options above will work best for your learning style? Remember that you can combine study options, too. For example, you could primarily self-study and then hire a tutor for a couple of hours to help you understand a concept that's been puzzling you. Or, you could take an in-person prep course to learn test strategies and then take an online course for further content instruction. #3: Will You Be Able to Stick to a Study Plan? Self-studying and online courses work best for the most disciplined and determined students who are able to stay on task without the help of an instructor. However, even if you take a class or hire a tutor, you need to staymotivatedto be able to do the necessary work to reach your goal score. Consider your own study habits, such as how often you tend to procrastinate, and then choose the method that'll best suit your prep needs. #4: How Much Guidance Will You Need? If you're only around 50 points away from your target score, you might be able to reach your goal with a couple of weekends of self-studying or a short in-person prep course. However, if you need to raise your score by a large number of points- say, 300 points or more- and you’re struggling to understand critical SAT concepts, you'd probably benefit from more intensive instruction, such asfrom a tutor, online prep course, or multi-week class. Regardless of how you decide to study, as long asyou improve your weaknesses, analyze your mistakes, and use realistic practice problems, you’ll get your desired results in no time! What's Next? Considering using Khan Academy to help you study? Find out how to get the most out of it in your SAT prep. SAT practice test are an excellent way to prepare for the real SAT. But what about old ones? Learn how to use old practice SATs to study for the current SAT. Ready to self-study for the SAT?Then make sure you're using thebest SAT prep bookscurrently on the market. Don't forget thebest SAT websites, either! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep classes. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our classes are entirely online, and they're taught by SAT experts. If you liked this article, you'll love our classes. Along with expert-led classes, you'll get personalized homework with thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step, custom program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Try it risk-free today:

Saturday, February 15, 2020

China Superpower Status Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

China Superpower Status - Essay Example As identified, the factors that were considered in ranking these economies are: â€Å"institutions, infrastructure, macroeconomic stability, health and primary education, higher education and training, goods market efficiency, labor market efficiency, financial market sophistication, technological readiness, market size, business sophistication, and innovation† (Ali, 2010, par. 2). In an article written by Miller (2006) in an attempt to assess China as an emerging superpower, the author initially proffered the need to determine the crucial elements that define a country being classified as a ‘superpower’, to wit: â€Å"a â€Å"superpower† is a country that has the capacity to project dominating power and influence anywhere in the world, and sometimes, in more than one region of the globe at a time, and so may plausibly attain the status of global hegemon† (Miller, 2006, par. 4). ... nents that were deemed critical to categorize a country as generating the status of a superpower were pinpointed as â€Å"measured along four axes of power: military, economic, political, and cultural† (Miller, 2006, par. 5). In this regard, the essay aims to identify the reasons for China’s ascent to super power status using the components above mentioned. Reasons for China’s Ascent to Superpower Status Consistent with Miller’s (2006) contentions that identified the crucial components for superpower status, the study written by Xuetong (2006) likewise supported that the same elements, eminent strength in military power, political and economic power have paved the way for China’s ascent. Xuetong’s (2006) assessment indicated that with data compiled in 2003, from among seven states, France, Britain, Russia, Japan, Germany, and India, China emerged as the sole country with strong power status on the three identified components (pp. 20 – 21). France, Britain and Russia manifest strong military and political powers, but weak economic power. 1. Economic Power The tremendous growth in China’s economy spurred by the expansion in manufacturing of diverse products at practically the lowest labor cost from among international economies have paved the way for its ascendance to strong economic power status. The statistics reveal the China’s GDP ranks second from among the countries in the world. As noted by Miller (2006), â€Å"China’s rise further depends critically on the continuation of such growth rates, and there are reasons to wonder how long the spectacular rates of the past 25 years can continue. The high proportion of China’s economy occupied by its exports makes it sensitive to the ups and downs of the international economy generally and to the engine of